Economic and Social Conditions of Jihadists
Terrorism goes across social and economic lines
Most people think that terrorism comes from poverty, broken families, ignorance, immaturity, lack of family or occupational responsibilities, weak minds susceptible to brainwashing – the sociopath, the criminals, the religious fanatic, or, in this country, some believe they’re just plain evil.
Taking these perceived root causes in turn, three quarters of my sample came from the upper or middle class. The vast majority—90 percent—came from caring, intact families. Sixty-three percent had gone to college, as compared with the 5-6 percent that’s usual for the third world. These are the best and brightest of their societies in many ways.
Al Qaeda’s members are not the Palestinian fourteen-year- olds we see on the news, but join the jihad at the average age of 26. Three-quarters were professionals or semi- professionals. They are engineers, architects, and civil engineers, mostly scientists. Very few humanities are represented, and quite surprisingly very few had any background in religion. The natural sciences predominate. Bin Laden himself is a civil engineer, Zawahiri is a physician, Mohammed Atta was, of course, an architect; and a few members are military, such as Mohammed Ibrahim Makawi, who is supposedly the head of the military committee.
Far from having no family or job responsibilities, 73 percent were married and the vast majority had children. Those who were not married were usually too young to be married. Only 13 percent were madrassa-trained and most of them come from what I call the Southeast Asian sample, the Jemaah Islamiyya (JI). They had gone to schools headed by Sungkar and Bashir. Sungkar was the head of JI; he died in 1999. His successor, Bashir, is the cleric who is being tried for the Jakarta Marriott bombing of August 2003; he is also suspected of planning the October 2002 Bali bombing.
As a psychiatrist, originally I was looking for any characteristic common to these men. But only four of the 400 men had any hint of a disorder. This is below the worldwide base rate for thought disorders. So they are as healthy as the general population. I didn’t find many personality disorders, which makes sense in that people who are antisocial usually don’t cooperate well enough with others to join groups. This is a well-organized type of terrorism these men are not like Unabomber Ted Kaczynski, loners off planning in the woods. Loners are weeded out early on. Of the nineteen 9-11 terrorists, none had a criminal record. You could almost say that those least likely to cause harm individually are most likely to do so collectively.
At the time they joined jihad, the terrorists were not very religious. They only became religious once they joined the jihad. Seventy percent of my sample joined the jihad while they were living in another country from where they grew up.
2011 study finds no link between poverty and support for militant groups, and suggests poorer people are actually less likely to support extremist groups than the more affluent, better educated people.
The findings undermine a central pillar of the Conservative government’s radical new policy on aid, which will deliver almost £1.4bn to Pakistan over the next five years as part of a strategy to protect Britain from terrorist attack.
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Christine Fair, a South Asia expert at Georgetown University and one of the authors of the new paper, said there was no evidence for such sweeping assertions and that her study of 6,000 people suggested that poorer Pakistanis were actually less likely to support extremist groups than more affluent, better educated people.
“The terrorism literature has long held that poverty does not explain terrorism,” she told The Daily Telegraph.
“Yet despite what would be a fairly robust body of literature, both the British government and the American government, have put together this canard that we can buy our way out of terrorism by investing in education and so forth. We simply don’t find this.”
More than 45% of people convicted of Al Qaeda-associated terrorist offences in the UK have attended university/higher education institutions, or studied/achieved vocational or further education qualifications.
A soon to be published Whitehall report – seen by the Daily Mail – will point to a string of examples of students going on to commit terrorist acts against this country or overseas.
Alarmingly the Prevent review says that ‘more than 30 per cent of people convicted for Al Qaeda-associated terrorist offences in the UK… are known to have attended university or a higher education institution.
‘Another 15 per cent studied or achieved a vocational or further education qualification. About 10 per cent of the sample were students at the time when they were charged or the incident for which they were convicted took place.’
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The universities which have given places to fanatics include some of our most prestigious institutions.
The report will say that terrorists who have attended English universities include Taimour Abdulwahab al-Abdaly, the Stockholm suicide bomber who had a BSc in sports therapy from the University of Luton, now the University of Bedfordshire.
The alleged Detroit underpants bomber, Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, studied mechanical engineering at University College London between 2005 and 2008.
Two of the fanatics convicted of the transatlantic liquid bomb plot – ringleader Abdulla Ahmed Ali and Assad Sarwar – attended City and Brunel Universities respectively.
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Ten of the 11 Pakistani nationals seized on suspicion of plotting an atrocity in the North-West in 2009 had student visas.
The alleged ringleader of this plot – Abid Naseer – was a computer studies student at Liverpool John Moores University.
2/3 of UK terror suspects are from middle-class backgrounds, 1/2 are married (some have children), and 90% can be categorized as ‘sociable’ people with a high number of friends.
Instead, the security service says that 90 per cent of them can be categorised as ‘sociable’ and have a high number of friends.
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While the report says that Western foreign policy and the perception that ‘Islam is under siege’ plays a role, they are not the main cause.
Instead, the four causes of radicalisation are:
• ‘Trauma’, such as the death of a loved one: Ten per cent of terror suspects became radicalised after a life trauma, says the report.
• ‘Migration’: A third of all extremists ‘migrated to Britain alone’.
• ‘Criminal activity’: Two-thirds of the sample had criminal records.
• ‘Prison’: Muslim prisoners who are not religious are often radicalised in prison. The report identified 60 known Islamist extremists operating in British jails.
The study says that the ‘mean age’ at which a Muslim becomes radicalised is 21.6 years, while anyone between the ages of 16 and 32 is regarded as vulnerable.
The report added: ‘Where data is available, two-thirds came from middle or upper-middle-class backgrounds, showing there is no simplistic relationship between poverty and involvement in Islamist extremism.’
The study also found that half of the suspects it surveyed were married and some had children.
‘This indicates that having commitments to a spouse and children did not necessarily restrain these individuals from becoming involved in activity that may have resulted in lengthy imprisonment, if not death.’
The report adds: ‘The vast majority (90 per cent of those on whom we have data) are described as sociable, with a number of friends. Our data thus tends to contradict commonly held stereotypes of terrorists being “mad”, psychopathic or evil.
‘It also challenges the theory that individuals who turn to radical or extremist networks are those who are unable to make friends in normal life.’
According to an al-Jazeera poll, “moderate Islam” is just an impractical and outdated theory in the Arab world.
Jawdat Said spoke first. He based his argument for a peaceful Islam on his understanding of human psychology and the Quran…Faisal then gave the microphone to Nader Al Tamimi. Like a steamroller squishing a mouse, he demolished the arguments of Jawdat Said. “Praise be to Allah who gave Jihad as the most powerful weapon in the Muslim arsenal. Jihad brought Islam from Arabia to the Levant, and then to Iraq, North Africa, and as far as Spain. Jihad is a two-edged sword; it enables the weak to conquer new territory, and then protects Islam in that territory.
‘Our mullah told us that when we perform the suicide attack, everyone around us dies, but we would stay alive,’ 9-year-old Ghulam Farooq said.
A senior Afghan intelligence official said up to 60 per cent of the suicide attacks are by minors.
Authorities arrested about 100 underage would-be bombers this year, said Lutfullah Mashal, spokesman for the National Directorate of Security.
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The number of Afghans killed or wounded by IEDs jumped 10% in 2011, compared with 2010, according to figures released by the military command in Kabul. The bombs account for 60% of all civilian casualties, which totaled more than 4,000 killed or wounded in 2011. Insurgents caused more than 85% of those casualties.
The findings that on average more than eight Afghans a day are being killed are at odds with Nato assessments that violence is falling.
Deaths from suicide attacks rose more than 80 per cent to 431 over the year.
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Women and children were increasingly caught up in the violence, accounting for 30 per cent of deaths in the last half of the year.
“From a security perspective, it is difficult to know if a 65% rate of repudiation (of Al-Qaida) is re-assuring or a 35% failure to repudiate troubling,” wrote study authors Christian Leuprecht, associate professor of the Royal Military College of Canada and Conrad Winn, Carleton University professor and president of COMPAS, a public opinion research firm.
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The report also states support for extremism is just as high among Muslims born in Canada, or other Western countries, as it is among those hailing from oppressive dictatorships.
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There are currently around four million Muslims living in Germany, of which nearly half are German citizens.
The survey also showed that among the 14 to 32-year-olds there exists a “subgroup” of religious extremists who hold anti-western views and are reportedly prepared to use violence.
This group amounts to about 15 percent of Muslims with German citizenship and about 24 percent for Muslims who are not German.
The survey also revealed that 8 percent support masterminds of past suicide bombings, including Noordin M. Top, the most wanted terror suspect in Indonesia, who authorities say is an expert in recruiting young suicide bombers among the country’s impoverished masses. 
43.5 percent of Indonesian Muslims (approximately 87 million) ready to wage war for their faith
The survey spanned 1,200 Muslims in 30 of the country’s 33 provinces.
“The percentage looks very small but it is very high in its real figure when you note that 85 percent, or 200 million, of the country’s 230 million population are Muslims,” PPIM researcher Jajat Burhanudin said Thursday during the release of the results.
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The survey, conducted from 2001 to March 2006, found 43.5 percent of respondents were ready to wage war on threatening non-Muslim groups, 40 percent would use violence against those blaspheming Islam and 14.7 percent would tear down churches without official permits.
“This condition has helped terrorists easily recruit new comrades and makes the country a fertile ground for sectarian radicalism,” Jajat said.
He added that a simultaneous study on the reasons for the results found Islamic teaching and Islamism made the most significant contributions to violent behavior, both in the domestic and public spheres.
“The more Muslims give their support for certain Islamic teachings legitimizing the use of violence, the more violence will happen.”
He noted that between 30 percent and 58 percent approved of amputation of the left hand for thieves and the stoning to death of rapists, as well as other tenets of sharia law, and opposed the election of non-Muslims for president. 
Indonesia, world’s most populous Muslim country, is combating Al-Qaeda linked terrorists whose most notorious attack was in Bali in 2002 when 200 people died in an attack by the Jemaah Islamiyah terror group. The country is also fighting a separatist movement in the Aceh region of northern Sumatra.
Note that al-Qaeda is a Sunni organization which is why the highly Shi’ite and Kurdish Iraq has such a strong disapproval of the organization
Forty-five per cent of Iraqis believe attacks against British and American troops are justified – rising to 65 per cent in the British-controlled Maysan province;
• 82 per cent are “strongly opposed” to the presence of coalition troops;
• less than one per cent of the population believes coalition forces are responsible for any improvement in security;
• 67 per cent of Iraqis feel less secure because of the occupation;
• 43 per cent of Iraqis believe conditions for peace and stability have worsened;
• 72 per cent do not have confidence in the multi-national forces.
The opinion poll, carried out in August, also debunks claims by both the US and British governments that the general well-being of the average Iraqi is improving in post-Saddam Iraq.
The findings differ markedly from a survey carried out by the BBC in March 2004 in which the overwhelming consensus among the 2,500 Iraqis questioned was that life was good. More of those questioned supported the war than opposed it.
Under the heading “Justification for Violent Attacks”, the new poll shows that 65 per cent of people in Maysan province – one of the four provinces under British control – believe that attacks against coalition forces are justified.
The report states that for Iraq as a whole, 45 per cent of people feel attacks are justified. In Basra, the proportion is reduced to 25 per cent.
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Among the Christian victims of 2010 there are 33 children, 25 elderly and 14 religious. In 2010 Hammurabi recorded 92 cases of Christians killed and 47 wounded, 68 in Baghdad, 23 in Mosul and one in Erbil.
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- Suicide bombers are responsible for killing more than 12,000 Iraqi civilians and wounding more than 30,000 since the war began, according to study released by the British medical journal Lancet.
- The study found that 1,003 documented suicide bombings accounted for 12,284 of 108,624 Iraqi civilian deaths, 11% of those killed between March 20, 2003, and December 31, 2010. It also found such attacks accounted for 30,644 — or 26% — of the 117,165 documented cases of Iraqi civilians wounded within the same period.
- “Suicide bombers in Iraq use suicide bombs strategically as cost-effective, precise, highly destructive weapons,” said the study, which was published Saturday.
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A plurality of people from the countries polled, including a two-thirds majority in Pakistan, favor the United States and other countries accepting a nuclear Iran if diplomatic efforts to halt Tehran’s program fail instead of resorting to military strikes.
“Popular opinion in the region seems to defy conventional wisdom. It may be unprecedented for people of different countries to be willing to accept nuclear weapons by a neighboring nation,” Ken Ballen, president of Terror Free Tomorrow, wrote in the report’s executive summary.
The report warned that “despite a deep historical enmity between Iran’s Persian Shia population and its ethnically diverse Arab, Turkish and Pakistani Sunni neighbors,” their acceptance of nuclear-armed Iran “shows that the radical Islamist propaganda, which portrays the West as the enemy of Islam is gaining dangerous ground.” 
Israel and Palestine
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The poll also examined Israeli and Palestinian attitudes towards the US and towards terrorism.
Nintey-six percent of Israeli Jews say the people who piloted the planes on September 11 were terrorists, while 37 percent of Palestinians share that view.
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Forty-two percent of Palestinians and 61 percent of Israeli-Arabs stated that they support the people who are attacking Americans in Iraq. Zero percent of Israeli Jews said they did.
Strongly support 22.4
Somewhat support 33.8
Somewhat oppose 24.3
Strongly oppose 16.4
No answer 3.1
1/3 of Palestinians effectively support the slaughter of Jewish children.
The survey was conducted by Prof. Yaacov Shamir of the Harry S. Truman Research Institute for the Advancement of Peace and the Department of Communication and Journalism at the Hebrew University, and Prof. Khalil Shikaki, Director of the Palestinian Center for Policy and Survey Research (PSR).
6 in 10 Palestinians reject 2-state solution, and 7 in 10 agree with hadith quoted in Hamas Charter about the need to kill Jews hiding behind stones and trees.
Respondents were asked about US President Barack Obama’s statement that “there should be two states: Palestine as the homeland for the Palestinian people and Israel as the homeland for the Jewish people.”
Just 34% said they accepted that concept, while 61% rejected it.
Sixty-six percent said the Palestinians’ real goal should be to start with a two-state solution but then move to it all being one Palestinian state.
Asked about the fate of Jerusalem, 92% said it should be the capital of Palestine, 1% said the capital of Israel, 3% the capital of both, and 4% a neutral international city.
Seventy-two percent backed denying the thousands of years of Jewish history in Jerusalem, 62% supported kidnapping IDF soldiers and holding them hostage, and 53% were in favor or teaching songs about hating Jews in Palestinian schools.
When given a quote from the Hamas Charter about the need for battalions from the Arab and Islamic world to defeat the Jews, 80% agreed. Seventy-three percent agreed with a quote from the charter (and a hadith, or tradition ascribed to the prophet Muhammad) about the need to kill Jews hiding behind stones and trees.
But only 45% said they believed in the charter’s statement that the only solution to the Palestinian problem was jihad.
The survey’s more positive findings included that only 22% supported firing rockets at Israeli cities and citizens and that two-thirds preferred diplomatic engagement over violent “resistance.”
Among Palestinians in general 65% preferred talks and 20% violence. In the West Bank it was 69-28%, and in Gaza, 59- 32%.
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Hamas’ Izz al-Din al-Qassam Brigades boasted killing 1,365 Israelis since it was founded, as well as injuring over 6,411 Israelis in various terror attacks.
According to the group’s military wing, over 11,000 rockets were fired at Israel and it has so far executed 1,117 terror attacks.
The number of fatalities among Hamas terror operatives stands at 1,848.
At least six people were killed in Nairobi earlier this month in a series of explosions, while the Foreign Office currently advises against all but essential travel to parts of the country within 60km of the border with Somalia, due to several recent kidnappings.
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The survey showed 87 percent support for Hizbullah’s retaliatory attacks on northern Israel. 
The study found 40 percent of the Moroccan youth in the Netherlands reject western values and democracy. Six to seven percent are prepared to use force to defend Islam.
The majority are opposed to freedom of speech for offensive statements, particularly criticism of Islam. Buijs is the first director of CRES, which will provide information to people who come into contact with radicalism as part of their work.
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And the July 2006 global Pew survey found that among Muslims, a quarter of Jordanians, a third of Indonesians, 38% of Pakistanis and 61% of Nigerians all expressed confidence in the mass murderer who founded al-Qaida.
The report by the Washington-based Pew Global Attitudes Project survey found that 65 per cent favoured Osama and that pluralities of 47 per cent believed Palestinian suicide attacks on Israelis were justified. Forty-six per cent thought attacks on Westerners in Iraq were justified.
The Pew Research Centre is a non-profit and non-governmental organisation, which specialises in opinion surveys. Its reports are widely respected in Washington’s academic circles.
Pakistan was one of four Muslim-majority countries in the survey, which also included Turkey, Jordan and Morocco, the governments of all of which have strong ties with the US.
Pew, the polling organisation questioned 1220 people in Pakistan’s urban areas, 1000 nationwide in four Moroccan cities and about 1000 each nationwide in Turkey and Jordan between February 19 and March 3.
The survey had a margin of error of plus or minus 3.5 percentage points.
Pew also conducted polls during the same period in the United States, Britain, France, Germany and Russia. 
The poll was conducted among 2,530 men and women representatives of the adult population of Pakistan. They were distributed in the rural and urban areas of various provinces and districts and comprised a cross-section of various education, income, age and linguistic backgrounds.
Statistically speaking, that staggering death toll means that on average, suicide bombers have killed 480 people and injured 1,014 others every year across Pakistan since September 11, 2011 – though, post-9/11, the phenomenon first struck in 2002. Likewise, Pakistan has suffered an average 30 suicide bombings every year of the decade, or four attacks a month.
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Suicide bombers actually came to Pakistan in force in 2002. The first attack of its kind occurred on March 16 that year, when a suicide bomber blew himself up in a church in Islamabad, killing five people and injuring 40 others.
Fifteen people died and 35 others were injured on May 8 that year when a bomber rammed his explosive-laden vehicle into a bus near the Sheraton Hotel in Karachi. Those killed in the attack included nine French engineers and five Pakistanis technicians who were working on a naval project. The attacks placed Pakistan on the world map of countries marred by suicide bombings.
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The next year, in 2003, a total of 70 people were killed and 114 injured in three suicide attacks, two targeting the president, General Pervez Musharraf in December and one targeting former prime minister Shaukat Aziz in June.
In 2004, 91 people were killed and 393 injured in seven incidents. The death doll in 2005 was 86 people killed and 219 injured in four strikes, while 161 people were killed and 352 injured in seven attacks in 2006.
The following year saw an unprecedented rise in suicide attacks, in the wake of the army’s gory Operation Silence against fanatical Lal Masjid (Red Mosque) clerics and their followers in the heart of Islamabad. A record number of 766 people were killed and 1,677 injured in 56 attacks in 2007.
The perilous trend of suicide strikes targeting the Pakistani security forces touched alarming heights that year, averaging more than one hit a week as the military establishment lost control of extremist jihadi networks and the leaders it had nurtured to advance its agenda in Afghanistan and India.
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The number of suicide bombings multiplied further next year – in 2008 – killing 895 people and injuring 1873 in 60 such incidents. There were 78 suicide attacks in 2009, killing 951 people and wounding 2,361. The ugly phenomenon peaked in 2010, when 1,172 people were killed and 2,204 injured in 51 such incidents.
It seems to be on the decline, with 601 people killed and 842 others injured in 36 incidents this year to the 10th anniversary of the 9/11 attacks, compared to the lives of 857 Pakistanis lost in who had lost their lives in 41 incidents between January 1, 2010 and September 11, 2010.
In a grim monthly break-down of the suicide bomb statistics for 2011, 45 people were killed in four incidents, 39 people were killed in three suicide attacks in February, 127 more lost their lives in six suicide attacks in March; another 65 were killed in April, 154 people lost their lives at the hands of human bombs in five such incidents in May, 66 more Pakistanis perished in four attacks in June, 11 people were killed in three attacks in July, and 71 Pakistanis lost their lives in four suicide bombings in August. This month 24 people have killed so far in one suicide attack in Quetta on September 7.
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TTP [Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan] is believed to have at least 2,000 trained suicide bombers across the country. “Our ulemas [Muslim legal scholars] have termed suicide attacks as an elite form of jihad,” says TTP spokesperson Azam Tariq. “Fidayeen is a sophisticated weapon of the mujahideen; our enemies have no idea how to counter these lethal bombers. Suicide attacks have made the mujahideen invincible”.
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The poll involved interviews with more than 15,000 Saudis and was overseen by Nawaf Obaid, a Saudi national security consultant.
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He noted that less than a third of Saudis polled had a positive opinion of militant clerics, although government-appointed religious figures did better.
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The margin of error was plus or minus three percentage points.
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UNODC, which works with countries fighting piracy, said there are currently 1,116 young Somali men being prosecuted for piracy by courts in 20 countries around the world. He said another 688 pirates are being prosecuted in African countries like Kenya, Somalia, Seychelles, Tanzania and Mauritius.
The number of orphans had increased sharply from 1,425 in January 2007 to 2,897 at the end of June, showing that the violence had intensified in the last 30 months, he said.
Mr Suparerk said southern unrest has left 542 women widows in Pattani, 502 in Yala, 439 in Narathiwat and 69 in Songkhla.
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At least 4,766 people have died and 7,808 have been injured since attacks began nearly eight years ago, Amnesty said. While some civilians have been inadvertently killed by Thai security forces, the rights group blamed insurgents for most of the attacks, saying they had been carried out to spread terror through both Buddhist and Muslim communities.
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Amnesty’s report on the conflict, released Tuesday, surveyed the cases of 66 people killed in insurgent attacks and found that 59 percent of the victims were Muslims.
Financially, the government has spent more than 161 billion baht in the restive deep South for military operations and on development projects over the past eight years. Of this staggering expenditure, about 70% was spent on military operations to tame the insurgency.
Other interesting facts gleaned from the statistics are as follows: There were more than 12,000 violent incidents during the past eight years, averaging 2.7 incidents on any single day. Of that total, 2,265 incidents were bombings. Of the more than 1,600 weapons seized by the insurgents, only 500 have been recovered.
The military earlier claimed that the situation in the deep South had improved somewhat, with fewer violent incidents. But the latest statistics tell a different story. Last year alone, a total of 535 people were killed and 1,049 injured from 671 violent incidents, compared with 521 killed and 941 injured in 652 incidents in 2010.
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“There are about 300 of leader rank, 3,000 operators and about 10,000 supporters,” the general said, adding that their numbers had fallen due to arrests.
United Arab Emirates
– Only 5% of UAE citizens felt that “democracy” was an “extremely important” reason for the U.S. invasion of Iraq. Preventing the spread of weapons of mass destruction was cited by 16%. “Oil” and “domination of the Muslim world” were the main reasons offered by UAE citizens for our invasion of Iraq.
– 81% of UAE citizens felt Iraq was worse off after the war. Only 4% said it was better off without Saddam.
– Asked to identify their “most admired” world leaders, 18% of UAE citizens chose Osama bin Laden. ”No one” finished first with 22%.
– When asked how they viewed themselves, only 19% said they identified first and foremost as citizens of the United Arab Emirates, while 66% said they saw themselves as “Muslims” first. 
Attacks on the US by al-Qaeda or other groups were viewed as justified by 13 per cent of the 500 British Muslims questioned. Another 15 per cent said they did not know whether such attacks were wrong or right.
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One of Britain’s most radical Muslim leaders said he believed the majority of Muslims in the UK supported al-Qaeda-style terror attacks on the US.
Sheikh Omar Bakri Muhammad, who heads the London-based group Al-Muhajiroun, said British Muslims were afraid to voice their real feelings about the coalition war in Iraq.
“Since the introduction of the new anti-terrorism laws, Muslims are terrified to speak their minds,” he said.
16% of British Muslims say that while the attacks may have been wrong, the cause was right
2% would be proud if a family member decided to join al-Qaeda. Sixteen per cent would be “indifferent”
56% of British Muslims believe that the Government is not doing enough to fight extremism, more than the 49 per cent of the whole population who agree
50% think the intelligence services have the right to infiltrate Muslim organisations to gather information about their activities and the way they obtain funding
65% of British Muslims say that their community needs to do more to integrate properly with British society
35% say that they would feel proud if a close family member joined the police
Twenty-eight percent hope for the U.K. one day to become a fundamentalist Islamic state. This comports with last year’s Daily Telegraph newspaper survey that found one-third of British Muslims believe that Western society is decadent and immoral and that Muslims should seek to end it.
The news is no less alarming on the question of freedom of speech. Seventy-eight percent support punishment for the people who earlier this year published cartoons featuring the Prophet Mohammed. Sixty-eight percent support the arrest and prosecution of those British people who “insult Islam.” When asked if free speech should be protected, even if it offends religious groups, 62 percent of British Muslims say No, it should not.
Also concerning freedom of speech, as the NOP Research survey reports, “hardcore Islamists” constitute nine percent of the British Muslim population. A slightly more moderate group is composed of “staunch defenders of Islam.” This second group comprises 29 percent of the British Muslim population. Individuals in this group aggressively defend their religion from internal and external threats, real or imagined.
The scary reality is that only three percent of British Muslims “took a consistently pro-freedom of speech line on these questions.”
Forty-five percent are convinced that 9/11 was an American/Israeli conspiracy—and that number rises to 51 percent among Muslims aged 18-24. Thirty percent would rather live under sharia rather than British law and 28 percent would like Britain to become an Islamic state. Eleven percent have firmly decided that British foreign policy justified the July 7th bombings, and 31 percent of young Muslims agree with this idea. Sadly, this is no rogue poll. Other surveys have come up with very similar results.
These numbers demonstrate how imbecilic it is to argue that if only Tony Blair hadn’t allied himself with George W. Bush in the war on terror there would be no problem. So, if changing British foreign policy—or to be more frank, appeasement—won’t work, then what will? This is where pretty much everyone in Britain is stumped. A good place to start might be ceasing to tolerate people wandering around London boasting “We’re all Hezbollah now.
Seventy percent said they disagreed, 20 percent said they agreed and 10 percent said they didn’t know.
Asked whether they believed the U.S. and its allies were justified in blaming the Sept. 11 attacks on al-Qaida, 17 percent answered ‘yes’ while 56 percent replied ‘no.’
Also, 64 percent said al-Qaida should not have been blamed for the October bombings on Bali that killed 192 people and similar terrorist attacks.
Yet 44 percent said attacks by al-Qaida or similar groups are justified because Muslims are being killed by the U.S. or allies using American-made weapons. Forty-six percent said such attacks were not justified. The survey question did not say where Muslims were being killed.
The poll found that 63% of all Britons had a favourable opinion of Muslims, down slightly from 67% in 2004, suggesting last year’s London bombings did not trigger a significant rise in prejudice. Attitudes in Britain were more positive than in the US, Germany and Spain (where the popularity of Muslims has plummeted to 29%), and about the same as in France.
Less than a third of British non-Muslims said they viewed Muslims as violent, significantly fewer than non-Muslims in Spain (60%), Germany (52%), the US (45%) and France (41%).
46% believe “the Jewish community in Britain is in league with the Freemasons to control the media and politics,” a conspiracy theory Board of Deputies director-general Jon Benjamin found “completely bizarre.”
A third of those questioned said they would rather live under Sharia law in the UK than British law.
The survey also reveals concerns among Muslims about Britain’s moral standards, with 40 per cent saying it is a country of bad moral behaviour.
· Understand “why some people behave in that way”: 56 percent.
· Disagree with Tony Blair’s description of the ideology of the London bombers as “perverted and poisonous”: 26 percent.
· Feel not loyal towards Britain: 16 percent.
· Agree that “Western society is decadent and immoral and that Muslims should seek to bring it to an end”: 32 percent willing to use non-violent means and (as noted above) 1 percent willing to use violence “if necessary.” Just 56 percent of Muslims agree with the statement that “Western society may not be perfect but Muslims should live with it and not seek to bring it to an end.”
· Agree that “British political leaders don’t mean it when they talk about equality. They regard the lives of white British people as more valuable than the lives of British Muslims”: 52 percent.
· Dismiss political party leaders as insincere when saying “they respect Islam and want to co-operate with Britain’s Muslim communities”: 50 percent.
· Doubt that anyone charged with and tried for the 7/7 attacks would receive a fair trial: 44 percent.
· Would not inform about a Muslim religious leader “trying to ‘radicalise’ young Muslims by preaching hatred against the West”: 10 percent.
· Do not think people have a duty to go to the police if they “see something in the community that makes them feel suspicious”: 14 percent.
· Believe other Muslims would be reluctant to go to the police “about anything they see that makes them suspicious”: 41 percent.
· Would inform the police if they believed that knew about the possible planning of a terrorist attack: 73 percent. (In this case, the Daily Telegraph did not make available the negative percentage.)
Another opinion poll, this one commissioned by Sky News and carried out by Communicate Research (which interviewed 462 UK-based Muslims by telephone) found similar results:
· Muslims who agree with what the London suicide bombers did: 2 percent.
· Who believe there is a Koranic justification for the bombings: 5 percent.
· Disagree with the statement that “Muslim clerics who preach violence against the West are out of touch with mainstream Muslim opinion”: 46 percent.
· Think of themselves as Muslim first and British second: 46 percent. Another 42 percent do not differentiate between the identities. A mere 12 percent see themselves as British first and Muslim second. 
71 per cent said they weren’t justified at all, and 11 per cent said they weren’t justified on balance.
But asked whether they had sympathy with the feelings and motives of the four British Muslim bombers, 13 per cent said they had a lot of sympathy and another 11 per cent had a little.
Abu Hamza is a British Muslim Cleric now serving a 7 year sentence for incitement to hatred
By contrast, the poll found that British Muslims represented a “notable exception” in Europe, with far more negative views of westerners than Islamic minorities elsewhere on the continent. A significant majority viewed western populations as selfish, arrogant, greedy and immoral. Just over half said westerners were violent. While the overwhelming majority of European Muslims said westerners were respectful of women, fewer than half British Muslims agreed. Another startling result found that only 32% of Muslims in Britain had a favourable opinion of Jews, compared with 71% of French Muslims. 
Extremist literature being sold in 25% of UK mosques
The researchers found hardline material at a quarter of the 100 mosques visited during the project.
The report said: “On the one hand, the results were reassuring: in only a minority of institutions – approximately 25 per cent – was radical material found.
“What is more worrying is that these are among the best-funded and most dynamic institutions in Muslim Britain – some of which are held up as mainstream bodies. Many of the institutions featured here have been endowed with official recognition.”
More than two-thirds of Islamic terrorism offences or suicide attacks in the UK, commited by British Muslims of foreign extraction.
Almost half (46%) were committed by individuals of a south central Asian ancestry, while the second and third most frequent regions of origin were eastern Africa (16%) and northern Africa (13%).
Some 48% of the 127 Islamism-related terrorism offences or suicide attacks, collectively referred to as Islamism related offences (IROs), were committed by individuals living in London, the report found.
The next two most common regions were the West Midlands (13%) and Yorkshire and the Humber (9%).
Nearly a third of individuals who committed IROs (32%) had a direct link to one or more proscribed organisations, the two most prevalent being al-Muhajiroun (15%) and al Qaida (14.5%), the report found.
Seven of the UK’s eight major bomb plot cells contained individual members with direct links to al Qaida – only the failed London bombers of July 21 2005 lacked undisputed evidence of direct contact with any proscribed organisation.
Just under a third (31%) of all individuals who committed IROs attended one or more terrorist training camps, the most common location being Pakistan. Seven of the eight major bomb plot cells contained members who attended terrorist training camps.
More than two-thirds (68%) of IROs were committed by those aged below 30.
The most common status was unemployed (35%) – but 42% were perpetrated by individuals either in employment (32%) or full-time education (10%).
The report concludes: “Al Qaida and al Qaida-inspired terrorism remains the biggest threat to the UK’s national security.
”The Security Service estimates that over 2,000 people in the UK pose a terrorist threat and in March 2005 it was estimated that there were up to 200 al Qaida-trained operatives in the UK.
”The British-based threat does not only affect the UK: a number of British Muslims have been convicted in foreign courts or have fought for (or trained with) terrorist or extremist Islamist groups abroad.”
Seven out of 10 Islamic fanatics are “home-grown” British nationals, according to the Henry Jackson Society.
The think-tank analysed 138 Islamic terror convictions from 1999 to 2010.
It found 54 per cent of the terrorists were given sentences of between one and nine years – and that those defendants spent a maximum of three and a half years in jail.
Incredibly, eight of them avoided prison altogether. The report gave examples of soft justice including the case of Mohammed Kabashi who was sentenced to nine years for helping the failed 21/7 London bombers but walked out of jail after just two years and three months.
Hook-handed preacher Abu Hamza was jailed seven years for soliciting murder.
He would have been freed after two years and two months but remains in custody because he is facing other charges in the US.
In a forward to the report Lord Carlile, the Government’s former independent reviewer of terrorism legislation, said: “The evidence reveals the UK to be something of a hub for the development of terrorists who export their activities to other countries.”
The would-be killers are among 2,000 extremists who the security services have said are based in Britain and actively planning terrorist activity of some kind.
. . .
Al-Shabaab has managed to generate tens of thousands of pounds in funding through the UK-based Somali population which is estimated at 250,000.
42 failed terrorist attacks since 9/11
Muslims represent about 1% of the American population, yet constitute more than 80% of terror convictions.
On Thursday, the House Homeland Security Committee holds its first hearing into radicalization among Muslim Americans. Critics have taken issue with the focus on one religious minority, but the DOJ list shows that radical Islamists are disproportionately involved in terror-related crimes.
Al-Qaida is involved in the largest number of prosecutions, representing 30 percent of the 228 terror cases involving an identified group. Hizballah-affiliated defendants are involved in 10.5 percent of the cases and Hamas is part of 9 percent. Pakistani-based Lashkar-e-Tayyiba was involved in 6.5 percent of the cases.
The Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka and the Colombian FARC lead the non-Islamist terrorist groups, combining for 14 percent of the total.
The Investigative Project on Terrorism analysis involved reviewing the Justice Department’s list of more than 400 successful terrorism-related prosecutions from Sept. 11, 2001, through March 18, 2010. Those cases that demonstrated defendants with a clear Islamist agenda were placed in that category, while those without a clear tie to radical Islam were excluded. In some cases, defendants with Arabic-sounding names were excluded from the Islamist category, because no definitive tie could be made.
To see the individual case listings, and those which were considered Islamist in nature, click here. To see a separate rundown of more than 30 terror-related prosecution activity in 2010 alone, click here.
Even so, the survey revealed noteworthy pockets of discontent.
While nearly 80 percent of U.S. Muslims say suicide bombings of civilians to defend Islam can not be justified, 13 percent say they can be, at least rarely.
That sentiment is strongest among those younger than 30. Two percent of them say it can often be justified, 13 percent say sometimes and 11 percent say rarely.
An additional 33 percent of Muslims interviewed said they believe the United States is fighting a war on terrorism, and 29 percent said they were not sure.
Poll of attendees of a convention of the Islamic Society of North America:
- Yes: 307
2. Do you consider yourself to be a Muslim first, an American first, or both equally?
- Muslim first: 214
American first: 4
Both equally: 86
3. Is the American government at war with the religion of Islam?
- Yes: 208
4. Can a good Muslim be a good American?
- Yes: 292
5. Did Muslims hijack planes and fly them into buildings on 9/11?
- Yes: 117
6. Did the U.S. government have advance knowledge of the 9/11 attacks, and allow the attacks to occur?
- Yes: 200
7. Did the U.S. government organize the 9/11 attacks?
- Yes: 106
8. Are the tapes of Osama Bin Laden, claiming responsibility for the 9/11 attacks and threatening future attacks, real or fake?
- Real: 126
9. Did Muslims commit the July 2005 train and bus bombings in London?
- Yes: 140
10. The Canadian government says it stopped a plot by Canadian Muslims in June 2006 to attack targets in Canada. Do you believe there was a real plot by Muslims?
- Yes: 61
11. The British government says it stopped a plot by British Muslims in August 2006 to bomb planes flying to America. Do you believe there was a real plot by Muslims?
- Yes: 66
12. Is Al Qaeda a real organization, operated by Muslims who are trying to attack America?
- Yes: 149
13. Is Al Qaeda attacking America because Al Qaeda hates American freedoms?
- Yes: 17
14. Is Al Qaeda attacking America because Al Qaeda hates American involvement in the Muslim world?
- Yes: 228
15. Is it justifiable for the U.S. government to do any of the following in an attempt to prevent terrorist attacks in America:
a. taking religion and ethnicity into account as one factor when deciding whom to interview and search at airports?
- Yes: 37
b. monitoring activities at American mosques?
- Yes: 43
. . .
25. Was America justified in invading Afghanistan after 9/11?
- Yes: 51
26. Is violence by Muslims against American civilians acceptable, in retaliation for the American government’s actions in the Muslim world?
- Yes: 23
27. Is violence by Muslims against the American military overseas acceptable, in retaliation for the American government’s actions in the Muslim world?
- Yes: 134
28. Is violence by Muslims against the American military in the U.S. acceptable, in retaliation for the American government’s actions in the Muslim world?
- Yes: 73
29. Is violence by Muslims against American government officials acceptable, in retaliation for the American government’s actions in the Muslim world?
- Yes: 51
Undecided: 25September, 2006
Using data from international and U.S. news reports, general Internet media, public records and official court documents, the researchers set out in November 2010 to analyze information on the status of Islamic extremism in the United States. They also looked at some of the unanswered questions raised by U.S. Rep. Peter King’s Committee on Homeland Security hearing, “The Extent of Radicalization in the American Muslim Community and That Community’s Response.” King, R-N.Y., and chair of the committee, held the hearing March 10, 2011.
“Providing policymakers this data can allow for a factual discussion and diminish rhetoric,” Neuhaus Schaan said. “Consequently, policy can be crafted to address current and future needs in the face of change and adaptation by those determined to bring harm to the United States.”
Other key findings from the report include:
- • Of the 104 people arrested for Islamic extremist activities between January 2009 and April 2011, half were born in the U.S., 22 percent were naturalized citizens and 7 percent were dual citizens.
- • Of the 104, 5 percent entered the U.S. on a visa.
- • Sixty-three percent of converts had a known prior criminal record.
- • Of the 14 American converts with a prior criminal history, at least 55 percent had converted to Islam in prison.
- • Ninety-two 92 percent were male.
- • Sixty-four percent were 30 years old or younger.
- • Sixty-six percent had traveled or were in the process of traveling to the Middle East, Somalia, South Asia or the Balkans.
- • Of the 104, 70 percent had an association or were attempting an association with an internationally recognized terrorist organization; al-Qaida and its associated branches were cited most.
- • Of the 29 persons with no known association to a group, 11 had been active on terrorist-related chat rooms and websites.
- • Overall, 38 percent had been involved in this Internet activity.
- • Only 10 of the 104 are what the authors would consider “lone wolves”; most in the cohort had ties to others in the group or to an organization.
Information on birthplaces and conversion to Islam was available for 77 of the 104 people arrested. The data revealed that 60 percent of the group was born outside the U.S. Of the 31 U.S.-born persons where religion of origin could be determined , 14 were born into Muslim families and 17 converted to Islam.
“The Internet and prison conversion are the two biggest new trends that policymakers need to look at more closely,” Neuhaus Schaan said. “We’ve seen a major change in how people become associated with extremist groups in the past 20 years, and we need to adapt.”
The report concludes that approximately two-thirds of those involved in extremist activity are men under the age of 34, and no single, all-encompassing profile can be made of the analysis group of 104. Neuhaus Schaan said that the Baker Institute will continue to compile data and issue an updated report annually.
. . .
Of the 95 currently listed as “confirmed” as having engaged in terrorist activity after their transfer, 12 are dead and 28 are back in some country’s custody, while 55 are not in custody, the report said. Of the 72 “suspected” former detainees, 2 are dead, 26 are in custody, and 44 are not in custody.
In Turkey, Morocco and Indonesia, 15% or fewer now say such actions are justifiable. In Pakistan, only one-in-four now take that view (25%), a sharp drop from 41% in March 2004. In Lebanon, 39% now regard acts of terrorism as often or sometimes justified, again a sharp drop from the 73% who shared that view in 2002. A notable exception to this trend is Jordan, where a majority (57%) now says suicide bombings and other violent actions are justifiable in defense of Islam.
. . .
When it comes to suicide bombings in Iraq, however, Muslims in the surveyed countries are divided. Nearly half of Muslims in Lebanon and Jordan, and 56% in Morocco, say suicide bombings against Americans and other Westerners in Iraq are justifiable. However, substantial majorities in Turkey, Pakistan and Indonesia take the opposite view.
As in past Global Attitudes surveys, publics in predominantly Muslim countries believe that democracy can work in their countries. Large and growing majorities in Morocco (83%), Lebanon (83%), Jordan (80%) and Indonesia (77%) – as well as pluralities in Turkey (48%) and Pakistan (43%) – say democracy can work well and is not just for the West. …
Overall, nearly two-thirds of French (66%) and Germans (65%) oppose Turkey’s EU bid, as do a majority of the Dutch (53%). Support for Turkey’s admittance to the EU is most extensive in Spain (68%) and Great Britain (57%). …
In the West, only among the Dutch and Germans does a majority or plurality hold unfavorable views of Muslims (51% and 47%, respectively).
Anti-Jewish sentiment is endemic in the Muslim world. In Lebanon, all Muslims and 99% of Christians say they have a very unfavorable view of Jews. Similarly, 99% of Jordanians have a very unfavorable view of Jews. Large majorities of Moroccans, Indonesians, Pakistanis and six-in-ten Turks also view Jews unfavorably.
In the Asian countries surveyed, views of religious groups are generally more moderate. India, with its substantial Muslim minority, is closely divided with respect to views about Muslims; 46% hold a favorable view while 43% view them unfavorably. Opinions of Christians are considerably higher: 61% favorable compared with 19% unfavorable. Most Indians (56%) offer no opinion on Jews; those that do split 28% favorable to 17% unfavorable.
In China, half view Muslims unfavorably while only 20% hold a favorable opinion. Views about Christians are scarcely better: 47% unfavorable compared with 26% favorable. Chinese views of Jews are essentially the same as their attitudes toward Christians: 49% negative vs. 28% positive.
In most of Europe as well as North America, majorities or pluralities judge some religions as more prone to violence than others, and those that do mostly have Islam in mind. Similarly, in India, among the 39% who see some religions as more violent than others, nearly three-in-four (73%) point to Islam, while 17% designate Hinduism. In predominantly Muslim countries, many agree that some religions are more prone to violence than others, but those who think this mostly have Judaism in mind. In Turkey, a plurality sees Christianity as the most violent.
. . .
Smaller majorities in Jordan and Indonesia also have positive views of Christians. However, in Turkey (63%), Morocco (61%) and Pakistan (58%), solid majorities express negative opinions of Christians. …
In Lebanon, just 2% report some or a lot of confidence in bin Laden, and in Turkey only 7% do so.
In Morocco, just 26% of the public now say they have a lot or some confidence in bin Laden, down sharply from 49% in May 2003. In Indonesia, the public is now about evenly split, with 35% saying they place at least some confidence in bin Laden and 37% saying they have little or none; that represents a major shift since 2003, when 58% expressed confidence in bin Laden.
In Pakistan, however, a narrow majority (51%) places some measure of confidence in bin Laden, a slight increase from 45% in 2003. And in Jordan, support for the Al Qaeda leader has risen over the last two years from 55% to a current 60%, including 25% who say they have a lot of confidence in him. Unsurprisingly, support for bin Laden in non-Muslim countries is measured in the small single digits.
The survey shows both hopeful and troubling signs with respect to Muslim support for terrorism and the viability of democracy in Muslim countries. In Jordan, Pakistan and Indonesia, there have been substantial declines in the percentages saying suicide bombings and other forms of violence against civilian targets can be justified to defend Islam against its enemies. The shift has been especially dramatic in Jordan, likely in response to the devastating terrorist attack in Amman last year; 29% of Jordanians view suicide attacks as often or sometimes justified, down from 57% in May 2005.Confidence in Osama bin Laden also has fallen in most Muslim countries in recent years. This is especially the case in Jordan, where just 24% express at least some confidence in bin Laden now, compared with 60% a year ago. A sizable number of Pakistanis (38%) continue to say they have at least some confidence in the al Qaeda leader to do the right thing regarding world affairs, but significantly fewer do so now than in May 2005 (51%). However, Nigeria’s Muslims represent a conspicuous exception to this trend; 61% of Nigeria’s Muslims say they have at least some confidence in bin Laden, up from 44% in 2003.
The belief that terrorism is justifiable in the defense of Islam, while less extensive than in previous surveys, still has a sizable number of adherents. Among Nigeria’s Muslim population, for instance, nearly half (46%) feel that suicide bombings can be justified often or sometimes in the defense of Islam. Even among Europe’s Muslim minorities, roughly one-in-seven in France, Spain, and Great Britain feel that suicide bombings against civilian targets can at least sometimes be justified to defend Islam against its enemies.
. . .
In other countries, the figures are no less unsettling. A survey published in December found that 44% of Nigerian Muslims believe suicide bombing attacks are “often” or “sometimes” acceptable. Only 28% said they were never justified.
According to the annual Pew Global Attitudes Survey, released in July 2006, “roughly one-in-seven Muslims in France, Spain and Great Britain feel that suicide bombings against civilian targets can at least sometimes be justified to defend Islam.” The report also found that less than half of Jordan’s Muslims believe terror attacks are never justified. In Egypt, only 45% of Muslims say terror is never justified.
. . .
After Cpl. Gilad Shalit was abducted by Hamas terrorists last summer, a poll conducted by the Jerusalem Media and Communications Center revealed that 77.2% of Palestinians supported the kidnapping, while 66.8% said they would back additional such attacks.
More than six out of 10 Palestinians also said they were in favor of firing Kassam rockets at Israeli towns and cities.
. . .
And the July 2006 global Pew survey found that among Muslims, a quarter of Jordanians, a third of Indonesians, 38% of Pakistanis and 61% of Nigerians all expressed confidence in the mass murderer who founded al-Qaida.
In Lebanon six months ago, the Beirut Center for Research and Information found that over 80% of the Lebanese population said they supported Hizbullah.
- ↑ Marc Sageman - Understanding Terror Networks - Foreign Policy Research Institute, November 1, 2004
- ↑ Rob Crilly - Poverty does not breed extremism in Pakistan, study finds - The Telegraph, May 20, 2011
- ↑ James Slack - 40 UK universities are now breeding grounds for terror as hardline groups peddle hate on campus - Mail Online, June 6, 2011
- ↑ Abul Taher - The middle-class terrorists: More than 60pc of suspects are well educated and from comfortable backgrounds, says secret M15 file - Mail Online, October 16, 2011
- ↑ Faisal Bodi - Bombing for God (Special report: Israel and the Middle East) - The Guardian, August 28, 2001
- ↑ Survey Result - Al Jazeera, September, 2006
- ↑ The Steamroller and the Mouse: Violent Versus Non-Violent Islam - Staring at the View, September 8, 2010
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 8.2 Amir Mir - Pakistan: The suicide-bomb capital of the world - Asia Times Online, September 16, 2011
- ↑ Subel Bhandari & Hares Kakar - “My uncle sold me for 170 dollars to be a suicide bomber” - Deutsche Presse-Agentur, November 30, 2011
- ↑ Tom Vanden Brook - IED attacks in Afghanistan set record - USA Today, January 26, 2012
- ↑ Ben Farmer - Civilian deaths in Afghanistan at highest level in a decade - The Telegraph, February 4, 2012
- ↑ Rory Callinan - Afghan rogue’s rant: Why I shot Diggers - The Age, February 11, 2012
- ↑ Raf Sanchez & Ben Farmer - US soldiers killed despite Obama Koran apology - The Telegraph, March 1, 2012
- ↑ Robert Burns - New Case of Afghan Killing Marine - Associated Press, March 16, 2012
- ↑ Keeping Islam Pure in Europe - The Brussels Journal, December 8, 2005
- ↑ Kris Sims - Strong support for Shariah in Canada - Toronto Sun, November 1, 2011
- ↑ Zachary Shore - Where next? - The New York Times, July 15, 2005
- ↑ Germany: Tracking 1,000 Islamic radicals - Associated Press, September 5, 2011
- ↑ Many German Muslims ‘refuse to integrate’ - The Local, March 1, 2012
- ↑ One in 10 Indonesians Back Suicide Bombings - LGF, March 19, 2006
- ↑ Ridwan Max Sijabat - Survey reveals Muslim views on violence - The Jakarta Post, July 28, 2006
- ↑ Indonesia: About ’1.8 million people’ have terror links - AKI, October 12, 2011
- ↑ Sean Rayment - Secret MoD poll: Iraqis support attacks on British troops - The Telegraph, October 22, 2005
- ↑ 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 24.4 Program on International Policy Attitudes - The Iraqi Public on the US Presence and the Future of Iraq - WorldPublicOpinion, September 27, 2006
- ↑ Faiz Shakir - New Poll: 71 Percent Of Iraqis Want U.S. Forces To Withdraw Within A Year - Think Progress, September 27, 2006
- ↑ Naman Tarcha - 2010 a terrible year for Iraq’s Christians - AsiaNews, July 15, 2011
- ↑ Chelsea J. Carter - Study: Suicide bomb attacks kill more than 12,000 Iraqis - CNN, September 4, 2011
- ↑ Jim Hoft - Lancet Leftists Now Say 108,000 Iraqis Were Killed in War Not 655,000 - Human Events, September 4, 2011
- ↑ Sam Dagher - An ‘Arab Winter’ Chills Christians - Wall Street Journal, December 5, 2011
- ↑ Muslim world supports Iran nukes, says poll - UPI, June 19, 2006
- ↑ First Public Opinion Poll in Iran’s Neighboring Countries Reveals Startling Findings on Possibility of Iranian Nuclear Arms - U.S. Newswire, June 12, 2006
- ↑ Janine Zacharia - Palestinians back armed struggle after state – poll - Jerusalem Post, October 22, 2003
- ↑ Daniel Pipes - A New Round of Anger and Humiliation, Islam After 9/11 - Hoover Institution, Stanford University
- ↑ JMCC Poll of Palestinians: 56.2% support suicide bombing operations against Israeli civilians - Independant Media Review Analysis, February 20, 2006
- ↑ Pali Poll: 75% Support Haifa Suicide Bombing - LGF, October 16, 2003
- ↑ Poll: One-third of Palestinians support Itamar attack - Jerusalem Post, April 6, 2011
- ↑ Gil Hoffman - 6 in 10 Palestinians reject 2-state solution, survey finds - Jerusalem Post, July 15, 2011
- ↑ Elior Levy - Hordes attend Hamas’ Gaza anniversary - YNet News, December 14, 2011
- ↑ Oliver Smith - Kenya suffers from slump in holiday sales - The Telegraph, March 26, 2012
- ↑ Nicholas Blanford - Israeli strikes may boost Hizbullah base - The Christian Science Monitor, July 28, 2006
- ↑ Poll finds support for Hizbullah’s retaliation Opinions diverge on sectarian lines – but not completely - Beirut Center for Research and Information, July 29, 2006
- ↑ Muslims in Europe: Country guide - BBC News, December 23, 2005
- ↑ Centre for extremist studies established - Expatica, June 14, 2006
- ↑ 44.0 44.1 Michael Freund - Right On: The straightforward arithmetic of jihad - The Jerusalem Post, January 31, 2007
- ↑ Dr. Carl Moeller - Islamic-Majority Countries Top Open Doors 2012 World Watch List - Open Doors, January 4, 2012
- ↑ Monica Mark - Nigerian terrorist ‘mastermind’ escapes police custody - The Guardian, January 18, 2012
- ↑ At least 143 killed in north Nigeria sect attacks - Associated Press, January 21, 2012
- ↑ Alejandro Bustos - Dozen killed in Nigeria jail attack - AFP, February 25, 2012
- ↑ Kimeng Hilton Ndukong - Nigeria: Over 5,000 Children out of School - Cameroon Tribune, March 8, 2012
- ↑ Nigeria forecasts famine in Boko Haram areas in 2012 - AGI, March 27, 2012
- ↑ Khalid A-H Ansari - 65% Pakistanis support Osama, says report - Mid Day, March 27, 2004
- ↑ Most Pakistanis grieve for Osama: Survey - Rediff News, May 17, 2011
- ↑ Special Representative Marc Grossman Discusses U.S. Pakistan Relations - PakistanPressReleases, October 8, 2011
- ↑ Nineteen thousand Pakistanis killed in terrorist attacks: Marc Grossman - Pakistan Today, October 9, 2011
- ↑ Militants destroyed over 5000 schools: Adeel - Pakistan Observer, December 12, 2011
- ↑ Terrorists Attacks in 2001 killed four thousand people - South Asian News Agency, January 1, 2012
- ↑ Muslim Rebels Kill 7 More in Philippines - Associated Press, October 21, 2011
- ↑ Henry Schuster - Poll of Saudis shows wide support for bin Laden’s views - CNN, June 9, 2004
- ↑ Joseph Mayton - Somali pirates earned 170 million dollars last year, says UN report - Bikya Masr, February 23, 2012
- ↑ South Sudan becomes a free nation, but tens of thousands of its people remain enslaved in the North - iAbolish.org, July 20, 2011
- ↑ Christians in Syria targeted in series of kidnappings and killings; 100 dead - Barnabas Fund, January 18, 2012
- ↑ South unrest leaves 2,897 orphans - Bangkok Post, February 7, 2009
- ↑ Jason Szep - Analysis: A debate over autonomy in Thailand’s restive south - Reuters, June 23, 2011
- ↑ Amnesty International says most casualties in Thailand’s southern insurgency are civilians - Associated Press, September 27, 2011
- ↑ South violence enters 9th year - Bangkok Post, January 5, 2012
- ↑ Thailand facing 3,000 militants – Army chief - Agence France-Presse, April 2, 2012
- ↑ Zogby International - Friend Or Foe? - FrontPageMagazine, February 28, 2006
- ↑ One in eight UK Muslims ‘support terrorist attacks’ - Scotsman.com, March 15, 2004
- ↑ Alexandra Frean & Rajeev Syal - Muslim Britain split over ‘martyrs’ of 7/7 - Times Online, July 3, 2006 (reproduced here)
- ↑ Bootie Cosgrove-Mather - Many British Muslims Put Islam First - CBS News, August 14, 2006
- ↑ James Forsyth - How radicalized are British Muslims? - Foreign Policy, August 10, 2006
- ↑ - Muslims in Europe: Country guide - BBC News, December 23, 2005
- ↑ Muslims: ‘War on terror’ means war against Islam - WorldNetDaily, December 23, 2002
- ↑ British Fifth Column Watch - LGF, December 23, 2002
- ↑ - Poll shows Muslims in Britain are the most anti-western in Europe - The Guardian, June 23, 2006
- ↑  - The Times Online, February 07, 2006
- ↑ Third of British Muslims View UK Jews as “Legitimate Target” - IRIS, February 10, 2006
- ↑ Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs - DAILY ALERT - February 10, 2006
- ↑ - 7/7 bombings ‘justified’ say a quarter of British Muslims - Scotsman News, August 7, 2006
- ↑ British Opinion Surveys from an Islamist Hell - Daniel Pipes, July 25, 2005
- ↑ War torpedoes Labour’s Muslim backing - Asian News, January 3, 2005
- ↑ Poll shows support for bombers - News.com.au, July 23, 2005
- ↑ Will Woodward - Police have no right to rush into action on dubious intelligence, say most Muslims in poll - The Guardian, June 27, 2006
- ↑ Muslim Poll – December 2005 - Prepared by Populus
- ↑ Julian Borger - Poll shows Muslims in Britain are the most anti-western in Europe - The Guardian, June 23, 2006
- ↑ Lessons in hate found at leading mosques - Nuzizo (original Times Online URL)
- ↑ Majority think Islam related terror offences carried out by Brits - Asian Image, July 5, 2010
- ↑ Home Correspondent, Richard Ford - Security Minister Lord West stopped and searched under Terrorism Act - The Times Online, November 27, 2009
- ↑ Britain’s soft justice for Islamic terrorists - Daily Express, July 9, 2011
- ↑ Sean Rayment - 200 suicide bombers ‘planning attacks in UK’ - The Telegraph, October 8, 2011
- ↑ Colin Freeman - British Muslims recruited to fight for ‘al-Qaeda’ in Somalia - The Telegraph, February 18, 2012
- ↑ Michael Haltman - More than 30 incidents of domestic terrorism attacks thwarted since 9/11 - Examiner, May 23, 2010
- ↑ Past Plots Help Explain New Concerns Over Jewish Targets - Algemeiner, March 7, 2012
- ↑ Steve Emerson - Islamists Dominate DOJ’s List of Terror Prosecutions - FamilySecurityMatters, March 10, 2011
- ↑ Alan Fram - Some young U.S. Muslims approve suicide hits - Associated Press, May 22, 2007
- ↑ National Security Writer, Jack Kelly - Number of dual citizens in U.S. soaring - Post-Gazette, May 15, 2002
- ↑ More than third of U.S. Muslims see war on Islam - The Washington Times, October 19, 2004
- ↑ National Security Survey Conducted At 2006 American Muslim Conventions - Muslims For A Safe America, September 9, 2006
- ↑ Report: More than half of people arrested for Islamic terrorist activities were American citizens - EurekAlert!, November 15, 2011
- ↑ Released prisoners return to terrorism - CNN, March 6, 2012
- ↑ Charlie Savage - Report Links Ex-Detainees to Terrorism and Insurgency - New York Times, March 5, 2012
- ↑ Islamic Extremism: Common Concern for Muslim and Western Publics - Pew Research Center, July 14, 2005
- ↑ The Great Divide: How Westerners and Muslims View Each Other - Pew Research Center, June 22, 2006